Otolaryngology is the primary discipline in the multidisciplinary field of facial plastic surgery, which also encompasses oral and maxillofacial surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. Both reconstructive and cosmetic elements are included.
In the United States, rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma repair, and the correction of facial deformities following skin cancer removal may all fall under the purview of facial plastic surgeons. Injectable fillers, neural modulators (such BOTOX Cosmetic, made by Allergan Pharmaceuticals in Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other skin-rejuvenating tools are also used in facial plastic surgery.
The subject of facial plastic surgery is constantly developing thanks to new innovations in surgical methods and aesthetic adjuvant technologies. In addition to highlighting recent developments and trends in procedures and surgical techniques, this article seeks to provide an overview of the numerous procedures that make up the field of facial plastic surgery.
Modern facial plastic surgery was first performed more than a century ago.
Facial plastic surgery was first developed as a specialization of otolaryngology by otolaryngologists who believed in addressing physical flaws that caused patients psychological distress, social disadvantages, and/or economic difficulties. Aesthetic surgery was initially considered to be outside the scope of traditional medicine, but Jacques Joseph was the first to champion the advantages of cosmetic surgery as a distinct specialty.
The pioneer of many of the initial surgical aesthetic methods that were later adopted and refined by other surgeons, Jacques Joseph is regarded as the father of contemporary facial plastic surgery.
In his 1920 book Plastic Surgery of the Face, Sir Harold Gillies, a New Zealander by training and an otolaryngologist, standardized rhinoplasty, skin grafts, and facial reconstruction.
He is frequently referred to as the inventor of plastic surgery.
Modern facial plastic surgery began as a specialization of otolaryngology with the establishment of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) in 1964.
Since that time, the international network of facial plastic surgery societies has grown to include organizations like the International Federation of Facial Plastic Societies and the European Academy of Facial Plastic Surgery.
Although many surgeons have large practices involving both, facial plastic surgery is often split into cosmetic and reconstructive operations.
The majority of facial plastic surgeons in the United States specialize on aesthetic surgeries (such as rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, and facelifts) and the rebuilding of facial deformities following skin cancer removal. The majority of facial plastic surgeons also employ lasers, neural modulators, injectable fillers, and other skin-rejuvenation tools. Focusing on skull base, craniomaxillofacial trauma, or microvascular restoration, facial plastic surgeons typically work in tertiary settings like university hospitals.
The AAFPRS recognizes facial plastic surgeons as diplomats in the field of otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Otolaryngology residency program that is certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties is followed by a 1- to 2-year facial plastic surgery fellowship by facial plastic surgeons. Facial plastic surgeons concentrate on procedures and operations affecting anatomy starting at the neck, in contrast to generic plastic surgeons. Actually, there is a lot of crossover and overlap between this field of medicine and general plastic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, ophthalmology, and dermatology.
The broad field of otolaryngology surgery known as facial plastic surgery includes reconstructive and cosmetic procedures as well as the use of biomaterials, lasers, and other adjunct materials to enhance results. Although by no means exhaustive, this article provides an overview of the major facial plastic surgery techniques, emphasizes recent developments and interventional trends, and attempts to predict the direction of emerging technology and cosmetic products.